Pakistan General Information

The oldest evidence of human activity is of Stone Age. Peoples on the Potohar plateau to the Northwest Punjab, the dravedians were late Stone Age hunter gathered. Communities in the Punjab Sindh Excavation indicate primitive agriculture in the up land valleys of Baluchistan by the late 4th Millennium BC. In the 3rd Millennium BC. Permanent villages forming were in sequence.

Indus Valley Civilization: 
The Indus valley civilization flourished from 23rd to 18th centuries BC. Its biggest and largest sites are Moenjodaro and Harapa. It was literally agriculture society dominated by the Egyptians Named Maspothanian. Who took the swing route of the Makran Coast.

A wave of Aryans rose up from Central Asia to South Asia in 18th country BC, Spoken an early common ancestor of all Indo-European languages, totally depended Agricultural from north to south. They have had sheep's to produce woolen cloths were called Ganthari which gradually, converted to Gandhara.

Alexander the Great: 
The first European invader who seiged the Persians and took his way to the North of Afghanistan into the North Frontier of Pakistan in 327 BC to seiged. Taxishila the last Achemenied empire of Taxila. Embhi the Akhminid empire gave him a great tribulation, and they both took over Punjab from Porus the great 326 BC.

The Mouryan Empire Chandragupta Mouria rose up from east India, Sieged Taxila and send his grand son Ashoka, who later become a famous King in Taxila. His conversion to Buddhism in 262 BC. Was a great change for Buddhism world, he trained Missionaries and send then to deferent part of the world and in a short time Taxila become a secrete Place for the Buddhist world.

Bactarian Sythians Parthian: 
After the decline of the Moryan, dynasty a wave a bactrain rose up from North of Afghanistan, in the 2nd century BC. To Gandhra, After the settlement, they built a new city, called sirkap and ruled up to 180 BC. They ruled over Gandhra and Indus valley civilization. A wave a of Sakas or Sythians rose up from central Asia, Pushed out the bactarians and settled down building new cities as well as Muhra Muradu in Taxila, Which was abundant up to 3rd century AD. The Persian rulers Parthians under the powerful King Ghandophereness, who found Gandhra is capital and built a new city in the Mardan region at Takh-e-bahi, which is flourished up to 3rd century AD.

Another tribe drive out from Central Asia were the Yueh Chih, or Kushans by the 2nd century AD, they had forged an Empire under their greatest kings, Kanishka, which spread from Uzbikistan to Buluchistan and the Ganges, ruling it from Peshawar under the Kushans Buddhism experienced and intellectual flooring found expression in an extra ordinary fusion of Indian and Greek art spread over from Gandhara to Central Asia- China and later to Tibet. In Kanishka, s trade and Buddhist art developed in the ruling areas. The Kushans brand of rulers, ruled Gandhra up to 6th century AD.

Little Kushans: 
The Kidar dynasty, which is called little Kushans, flourished –up to 455.

Huns & Shahis: 
Gandhra and the Gupta land were ruled in the 5th century AD. By the hepthlelitises are white Huns. From Central Asia through the lasted a few generations Gandhra have recovered. The Turkish Hindu Shahi dynasty of Afghanistan above them from Gandhara, but the Chinese pilgrims Fah Yuien on an Epic 15 years journey to India in the 5th century found Buddhism still alive in Gandhra. A 7th century Monk traveler Hsuan Tsang found it retreating on the mountains increasingly Ritualostic and Maystic Form. The last Turkic Hindu Shahi dynasty over in 9th century took by the Barhamans and ruled up to 10th century AD.

In AD 712 an Arab invader under the young commander Hajag bin-Yousuf sailed from Baghdad on the Makran Coast to the Indus region. At Deble near Karachi. He took over Sind from a strong Hindu King Raja Daher and Islam flourished in the region. The other Arab invader Muhammad Bin Qasim, who marched up to the Indus valley to upper Punjab region. He came to Multan in 11th century. Meanwhile the Gazanavd dynasty rosed up from Central Asia in 1001 seiged the Peshawar valley, Swat and marched down to Multan and its neighboring region to Dheli. And Islam became the majorities' religion in sub-continent.

In 1524 Zaheer -uddin Babar, the first Mogul Emperor the descendent of Chanze Khan of Mangolia, ruled up from Central Asia to the Indian Sub-content, he came from Afghanistan to Peshawar, built a fort, named Bala Hisar Fort, that was his 1st fort in the region, he marched down to the Indus river, following the Kabul river cross the Indus at Attack region and built a Fort in Attack in 1581. After his death, his Son Hamayoun became the Mogul emperor defeated by Afghan King, Sher Shah Suri, Seiged the Sub-Continent, His total attraction was to built the Silk Route in good condition for trade. He built Karvan Sarai, s, wells for drinking water in every twenty miles. After a short time it was seiged by the 3rd Mogul emperor Akbar in 1524. He start building Lahore Fort in 1560, and walled city containing with 12 gates around the city, and later his son Aurangzab Alamgir, who built the Shahi Mosque in Lahore and Jahangir, s living rooms, and later his son Shah Jahan the great builders, who built Shish Mahle Devan Khas, Devan Aram, Maktab Khana, Moti Masjed, Lal Burg, Kala Burg, Ladies sleeping rooms, Turkish style of Bathrooms, Hati Pare. The Mogul dynasty flourished up to 1560 and the capital was Lahore, The birthplace of Aurangzab and Shah Jahan.

After the decline of the Mogul dynasty Renjet Sing, the founder of the Sikh dynasty was the Governor of the Shah Jahan in India. Who found his capital in Lahore and seiged the Sub-Continent murged, the North West Frontier region in his dynasty.

Sihkism was founded in the 15th Century as a new religion attempted to Shed the Dogma and Synthesize, the basic of the major religion in this, it was influence by Sufiism of Islam. A mystical arm. It prospered under Akbar, but grew increasingly militarized under persecution under Aurangzab. In 17th century the last Sikh Guru. Gobind Singh found the Kalasa Orthodox brotherhood of Holiworiers, this philosophy was introduce in the Sikh region, which still existing in the Sikh community.

In uprising of the Sikh community was in 1841 and later the war started between British Gresion. And Sikh Army.

In 1600 Queen Elizabeth announced a business package to British traders to find market in Asia for cotton, Rice, Spices and the 1st place the found in India as east India company, which became, they final residence of the British empire, who rolled the sub-continent properly from 1889 till 1947.

Pakistan existed as independent country on Aug 14-1947 from British India.

According to 1996 Senses Pakistan reachead140 Million.

The land of Pakistan covers an Area of 800,000 Square Km.

A quarter of the country has less than 120 millimeters, and three quarters less than 250 millimeters of annual rains. The monsoon reaches mostly in the narrow belt of Punjab at times up to the lower mountain slopes of north, causing rainfall to about 500 millimeters per year with heavy summer storms from July to September.

June and July are the hottest with mid-day temperatures in the 30c. in towns and between 10-25c, in the mountains.
December, January, and February are the coldest months with daytime temperatures ranging between 10-25c. In the plains and between 5-20c, in the northern areas. It is naturally cooler at higher altitudes in summers, and very cold in the winter months.

Strategically Pakistan is situated at an important point of Central Asia and South Asia, bordered with India in the east, in the south with Arabian Sea, in the west with Iran, and with North west with Afghanistan to extreme North with China, and Tajkistan.