Upper Mustang Trekking is the former Kingdom of Lo and now part of Nepal, in the north-central part of that country, bordering China on the Tibetan plateau between the Nepalese provinces of Dolpo and Manang. The culture is Tibetan Buddhist.
The Kingdom of Lo, the traditional Mustang region, and "Upper Mustang" are one and the same, comprising the northern two-thirds of the present-day Nepalese Mustang District, and are well marked by official "Mustang" border signs just north of Kagbeni where a police post check permits for non-Nepalese seeking to enter the region, and at Gyu La (pass) east of Kagbeni.
Trekking in Upper Mustang is largely dry and arid with annual precipitation in the range of 250–400 mm due to its position in the rain shadow of the Annapurna massif and the Dhaulagiri Range towards the south.
Upper Mustang was once an independent kingdom, although closely tied by language and culture of Tibet. From the 15th century to the 17th century, its strategic location granted Mustang control over the trade between the Himalayas and India. At the end of the 18th century the kingdom was annexed by Nepal.
Foreign visitors have been allowed into the region since 1992, but tourism to Upper Mustang is regulated. Foreigners need to obtain a special permit to enter, which costs US$50 per day per person and Annapurna conservation fee Rs 2,000. But you have to take this special permit at least for 10 days. The special permit will get you only from Trekking Company.